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Seventeenth Century

Eighteenth Century



Sixteenth Century Renaissance English Literature: Background Information

General Introductions to the Renaissance
Overview of the 16th Century - Norton Topics Online
Renaissance - The Annenberg/CPB Project
The Renaissance - Michael S. Seiferth

History, Politics, and Law
Renaissance Backgrounds: A Chronological Outline - Dr. Harriette Andreadis
Millennium Timeline: The 16th Century (1501 - 1600) - Greenwich 2000
Renaissance Humanism - The Annenberg/CPB Project
Humanism - Vatican Expo
Introduction to Politics and War in the 16th century - Dr. E. L. Skip Knox
Loyalty as an Elizabethan Practice - Peter Grubbs
Plots and Rebellions in Tudor England - BBC4
Tyburn Tree: Public Execution in Early Modern England - Dr. Charlie Mitchell
Crime and the Law in Elizabethan England - UVic
The Technology of Warfare in Elizabethan England - UVic
Political and Social Aspects of the Later Elizabethan and Earlier Stewart Period - A. W. Ward
Power and Government in Elizabethan England - Heather Thomas
Shakespeare's England: Law - Arthur Underhill
Harrison's Description of Elizabethan England
More at Luminarium Encyclopedia Project

Economy, Trade, and Exploration
Renaissance Exploration, Travel, and the World Outside Europe - Norton Topics Online
Renaissance Exploration and Trade - The Annenberg/CPB Project
The Economy of Europe in the Renaissance - Dr. E. L. Skip Knox
Elizabethan Economy - Christopher W. Taylor
Poverty in Elizabethan England - Alexandra Briscoe
Currency Values In Elizabethan England - Shrewsbury Renaissance Faire
Measuring Worth: Purchasing Power 1264 to the Present

Religion & Philosophy
Religion in the Renaissance - UVictoria
Dissent, Doubt, and Spiritual Violence in the Reformation - Norton Topics Online
A Whirlwind Tour of the Protestant Reformation - Michael Bryson
The Protestant Reformation - Miles Hodges
The Dissolution of the Monasteries by King Henry VIII - Luminarium Encyclopedia
The Core of Elizabethan Religion - John E. Booty
Book of Common Prayer Marks 450th Anniversary - Julia Duin
Ballads and brags: free speech and recusant culture in Elizabethan England - Phebe Jensen
N.D. versus O.E.: anonymity's moral ambiguity in Elizabethan Catholic controversy - ML North
Bibliography: Redefining the Sacred in Early Modern England - Folger Library
The Puritan movement - UVic
European Society in the Reformation Era - Dr. E. L. Skip Knox
The Reformation in England - Dr. E. L. Skip Knox
Queen Elizabeth and the Reformation - Dr. E. L. Skip Knox
Forms of Early Religious Vernacular Texts in England (c.1475-1570) - David J. Duncan
The Elizabethan Homilies 1623 - UToronto

Renaissance Science and Medicine
Medieval Cosmology - Luminarium Encyclopedia
The Medieval Universe - UVictoria
Scientific Revolution - Dr. E.L. Skip Knox
The Rise of Scientific Medicine: The Renaissance - SEED
Renaissance Period in Medicine - Dr. Mansoor Ali
Disease in Elizabethan England - BBC4
Medieval and Renaissance Medicine -BBC
Military Medicine in the Renaissance - War and Game
Paracelsus' Impact on Medicine During the Renaissance Era - Blake, Aronstam, & Buchanan
Women and Medicine in the Middle Ages and Renaissance - Jennifer A. Heise
The Galileo Project - Rice University
Giambattista della Porta's "Natural Magick", 1584
Leonardo da Vinci: Scientist, Inventor, Artist - Museum of Science, Boston
Alchemy Virtual Library
Syphilis and the Shepherd of Atlantis - Stephen Jay Gould

The Plague
The Black Death - Dr. E.L. Skip Knox
The Plague - UVictoria
Pictures of the Plague - Ed Stephan
John Graunt's Bills of Mortality - Ed Stephan
The Plague in Elizabethan England - Liam Miller and Evan Orr
Plague and Public Health in Renaissance Europe - University of Virginia

Magic, Witchcraft, and the Supernatural
The Supernatural - UVictoria
Witchcraft Documents [15th Century] - Medieval Sourcebook
Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and America - UIUC
Magic and Sorcery in Elizabethan England - BBC4
Demonology - Cosma Shalizi
Excerpts from Harsnett's A Declaration of egregious Popish Impostures (1603) - UPenn
Two sixteenth-century Latin treatises on witchcraft - UPenn
Spirits, Witches, & Science: Why the rise of science encouraged belief in the supernatural in 17th-c. England - Richard Olson
To Prevent a "Shipwreck of Souls": Weyer and "De Praestigiis Daemonum" - Elisa Slattery
Towards a New Demonology - Steven Connor
Witchcraft Craze History - Laren
Witchcraft Trials & the Origins of the Witchcraze in Late Medieval England - "Epona Seaborn"

Women in the Renaissance
Gender, Family, Household: 17th C. Norms and Controversies - Norton Topics Online
Women's Rights - Norton Topics Online
Women's Public Speech - Norton Topics Online
Education of Women - Norton Topics Online
Education of Girls - UVictoria
Elizabethan Women Writers - UVictoria
Women as Translators - UVictoria
Huswifery - UVictoria
Women: loved and loathed - UVictoria
Order in the sexes - UVictoria
Literature for women - UVictoria
Sex, Marriage, and Prostitution in Tudor England - BBC4
Women and Medicine in the Middle Ages and Renaissance - Jennifer A. Heise
Impudent Women: Carnival and Gender in Early Modern Culture - Kate Chedgzoy
Knox's The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women 1558
Ale Wives, Old Wives, Widows, and Witches:
         The Older Woman in English Renaissance Literature - Patricia Shaw .PDF
The Housewife's Rich Cabinet: Remedies, Recipes, and Helpful Hints - Folger Library
Shakespeare's Unruly Women - Folger Library
The Society for the Study of Early Modern Women
Life of Women in Tudor England - Kelly Crispen
Bibliography: The Education of Upper-Class Englishwomen - Sharon Deborah Michalove
Women's Writing in the Renaissance and Reformation - Janet Clare

Renaissance Art Posters
Renaissance Images of the Virgin
An Image-Oriented Introduction to Backgrounds
for English Renaissance Literature
- Professor Herman Asarnow
Renaissance Image Gallery - Professor Rebecca Bushnell
Seeing What Shakespeare Means - Folger Library
Renaissance Maps - Lara Eakins
Early Modern Cartographic Resources on the WWW - Rhonda Lemke Sanford
Tudor Dress: A portfolio of images - Hope Greenberg
Electronic Renaissance: Images - Dr. E. L. Skip Knox
University of Michigan Image Catalog
Bodleian Library Image Catalog
Novus Orbis: Images of the New World, 1507-1669 - UVA

Renaissance Art
Free Renaissance Fonts
Renaissance Art Posters
Renaissance Images of the Virgin
National Portrait Gallery
Art in Renaissance England - UVictoria
Italian Painting of the 15th century - National Gallery of Art
Italian Painting of the 16th century - National Gallery of Art
Northern European Painting of the 15th-16th centuries - National Gallery of Art
Renaissance Tapestry - Sara Stone

Renaissance Architecture
Renaissance Architecture in England - UVictoria
Tudor Architecture - Lara Eakins
Renaissance Architecture - ArchitectureWeek
Elizabethan Architecture - Valerie Kamhi

Renaissance Music
Music History 102: The Renaissance - IPL
Renaissance Consort
Music in England - UVictoria
Music in Tudor England - Lara Eakins
Early Music Midi Files - Curtis Clark
Guitar and Lute MIDI Library - Allan Alexander
Mulliner Book MIDI files - David Cooke
English Baroque MIDI files - David Cooke
Medieval and Renaissance Music Research Page - Mulcheng
A Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Instruments - Musica Antiqua
16th-Century Printed Tablatures for the Lute, Vihuela, Guitar, and Cittern - Dr. Gary R. Boye
Sixteenth Century Ballads - Greg Lindahl

Renaissance Theatre
English Renaissance Drama - Luminarium
Shakespeare's Stage - UVictoria
The Drama and Shakespeare - UVictoria
Ancient Rome and The English Renaissance Theatre - John Price
The Sixteenth Century Court Audience: performers and spectators - Sarah Carpenter
London's Disreputable South Bank in the 16th and 17th century - Jessica A. Browner [.doc]
Centre for Research in Early English Drama (REED)  - University of Toronto

Renaissance Dance
Renaissance Dance - Andrew Draskóy
Renaissance Dance Sources - Joseph Casazza
SCA Renaissance Dance Homepage - Greg Lindahl
'Les Basses Danses de Marguerite d'Autriche'

Renaissance Costume
The Costumer's Manifesto: 16th century/Northern European Renaissance - Tara Maginnis
Tudor Dress: A Portfolio of Images - Hope Greenberg
Arador Armour Library - David Clemons
Hairstyles of the Elizabethan Period - Barfield and Fuller
Men's Fashion during the Elizabethan Period - Matt Doering
Women's Fashions of the Elizabethan Period - Bridges and Granger
Modesty to Majesty: The Development of the Codpiece - Beth Marie Kosir
The Codpiece: Social Fashion or Medical Need? - C.S. Reed

Renaissance Printing and Publishing
Publishing in the Renaissance - UVictoria
Printing: Renaissance & Reformation - University of South Carolina
Renaissance Printing and Thinking - The Annenberg/CPB Project
The World of the Renaissance Print Shop - Merry Wiesner-Hanks
The Infancy of Printing - University of Wisconsin Milwaukee
Martin Marprelate Controversy - Luminarium Encyclopedia
Manuscripts, Books, and Maps: The Printing Press and a Changing World - Bruce Jones
Renascence Editions: Works Printed in English, 1477-1799 - R. S. Bear
The Book-Trade, 1557–1625 - H. G. Aldis
Tudor Aristocrats and the Mythical "Stigma of Print" - Steven W. May

Renaissance Food and Drink
Food in Tudor England - Lara Eakins
Medieval/Renaissance Food Homepage - Greg Lindahl
Medieval/Renaissance Brewing Homepage - Greg Lindahl
Elizabethan Alehouses - Heather Thomas

Renascence and Reformation - Cambridge History of English and American Literature
Renaissance Society - UVictoria
Class and Customs in Tudor England - BBC4
London and the Development of Popular Literature - Harold V. Routh
Childhood in Elizabethan England - Heather Thomas
Outlaws and Highwaymen - Gillian Spraggs
History of Prose Style - John F. Tinkler

Renaissance Forum - Andrew M. Butler, Technical Editor
Early Modern Literary Studies - Lisa Hopkins, Editor

VoS: Renaissance and 17th Century - Alan Liu
Internet Modern History Sourcebook - Paul Halsall
English Literature on the Web - Mitsuharu Matsuoka
Literary Resources -- Renaissance - Jack Lynch
Sonnet Central - Eric Blomquist
Imagining Early Modern Worlds - Dr. Grant Williams
Shakespeare and the Renaissance - Terry A. Gray

Backto Renaissance English Literature
Backto Luminarium Encyclopedia

©1996-2011 Anniina Jokinen. All Rights Reserved.
Created by Anniina Jokinen on April 3, 1996. Last updated on January 23, 2011.


The Tudors

King Henry VII
Elizabeth of York

King Henry VIII
Queen Catherine of Aragon
Queen Anne Boleyn
Queen Jane Seymour
Queen Anne of Cleves
Queen Catherine Howard
Queen Katherine Parr

King Edward VI
Lady Jane Grey
Queen Mary I
Queen Elizabeth I

Renaissance English Writers
Bishop John Fisher
William Tyndale
Sir Thomas More
John Heywood
Thomas Sackville
John Bale
Nicholas Udall
John Skelton
Sir Thomas Wyatt
Henry Howard
Hugh Latimer
Thomas Cranmer
Roger Ascham
Sir Thomas Hoby
John Foxe
George Gascoigne
John Lyly
Thomas Nashe
Sir Philip Sidney
Edmund Spenser
Richard Hooker
Robert Southwell
Robert Greene
George Peele
Thomas Kyd
Edward de Vere
Christopher Marlowe
Anthony Munday
Sir Walter Ralegh
Thomas Hariot
Thomas Campion
Mary Sidney Herbert
Sir John Davies
Samuel Daniel
Michael Drayton
Fulke Greville
Emilia Lanyer
William Shakespeare

Persons of Interest
Visit Encyclopedia

Historical Events
Field of the Cloth of Gold, 1520
Pilgrimage of Grace, 1536
The Babington Plot, 1586
The Spanish Armada, 1588

Elizabethan Theatre
See section
English Renaissance Drama

Images of London:
London in the time of Henry VII. MS. Roy. 16 F. ii.
London, 1510, the earliest view in print
Map of England from Saxton's Descriptio Angliae, 1579
Location Map of Elizabethan London
Plan of the Bankside, Southwark, in Shakespeare's time
Detail of Norden's Map of the Bankside, 1593
Bull and Bear Baiting Rings from the Agas Map (1569-1590, pub. 1631)
Sketch of the Swan Theatre, c. 1596
Westminster in the Seventeenth Century, by Hollar
Visscher's Panoramic View of London, 1616. COLOR

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